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Kallinen, K., & Ravaja, N. (2007). Comparing speakers versus headphones in listening to news from a computer: Individual differences and psychophysiological responses. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(1), 303–317. 
Added by: sirfragalot (06/01/2010 04:32:35 AM)   
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2004.10.014
BibTeX citation key: Kallinen2007
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Categories: Hardware
Keywords: Headphones
Creators: Kallinen, Ravaja
Collection: Computers in Human Behavior
Views: 4/372
"When audio is listened with speakers, the sound comes from a distance. With headphones, the surrounds are more isolated and the sound comes closer to the listener, and may thus create a more intimate and immersive listening experience. We examined the emotion-related subjective and psychophysiological responses elicited when listening news from a computer with speakers versus headphones, and the individual differences in these responses. Self-reported preference, valence, arousal, and understandability of the news, as well as electrodermal activity (EDA), pulse transit time (PTT), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and facial electromyography (EMG), were measured.

Headphone listening was preferred over speaker listening, and it elicited more positive emotional responses as indexed by orbicularis oculi and zygomaticus major EMG activity, and higher attention as indexed by shorter PTTs, than speaker listening. However, speaker listening prompted more attention as indexed by RSA among subjects scoring high on the sociability and activity personality scales. Speaker listening also elicited higher physiological arousal as indexed by EDA among high impulsive-sensation seeking and sensation-seeking scorers. The results are discussed from the interpersonal distance and isolation of the surrounds point of view.

The present results are of practical importance, given the possibilities afforded by modern technology to present multimodal information effectively and adapt the information and/or interfaces to fit the individual characteristics of the user (e.g., personality)."
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