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Evans, D. (2001). Emotion: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
Added by: sirfragalot (05/15/2011 03:55:20 AM)   
Resource type: Book
BibTeX citation key: Evans2001
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Emotion
Creators: Evans
Publisher: Oxford University Press (Oxford)
Views: 3/342
Quotes
p.5   Ekman's basic universal, innate emotions include: joy; distress; anger; fear; surprise; disgust. "They are of rapid onset and last a few seconds at a time."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Emotion
p.10   "The universality of basic emotions argues strongly for their biological nature."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Emotion
pp.13-14   Some emotions are learned and culturally specific. Perhaps such emotions exist to "help people to cope with the particular demands of their culture." (p.15)   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Emotion
p.31   "...fear is probably one of the first meotions to have ever evolved."

All animals descended from the first vertebrates have the capacity for fear.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Fear
pp.80-81   "Some memories seem so fresh and vivid when we recall them that we may have the impression of reliving the event exactly as it happened, but this is an illusion caused by the power of our imaginative reconstruction. When we compare such recollections with those of others who were in the same place at the same time, we may find that the accounts differ markedly, while the differing versions seem equally vivid and real to each person."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Imagination Memory
Paraphrases
pp.15-19   A continuum betwee basic, innnate emotions and learned emotions. Fear and anger, for examplem very innate and very basic. Romantic love, as an emotion: unclear whether basic or learned. Some claim it is a Mediaeval invention but others find evidence for it in texts such as the Old Testament. It's also been observed in non-Western societies.. However, emotions such as romantic love can be "played out slightly differently in different cultures" (p.19).   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Emotion
pp.19-20   Possibly a third category of emotions -- 'higher cognitive emtotions' e.g. love. It is universal and innate (to a degree) but typically grows slowly (unlike fear and anger). Such emotions are associated with the neocortex rather than in the subcortical strucutres of the brain. The neocortex supports high level complex cognition such as logical analysis. Emotions derived here may be "influenced by conscious thoughts and this in turn is probably what allows higher cognitive emotions to be more culturally variable than the basic emotions" (p.20).   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Cognition Emotion
pp.20-21   Other higher cognitive emotions might be jealousy, envy, pride, embarrassment, shame, guilt as well as love.

All of these are fundamentally social unlike basic emotions. "Some basic emotions can also be co-opted for the social functions that typify higher cognitive emotions." (p.21). e.g. disgust at a rotting body's smell (non-social function keeps you away from disease) or disgust at incest or paedophilia (social function).   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Cognition Emotion
pp.26-27   Two pathways related to fear in the brain. The shorter leads to quicker responses but can be wrong -- e.g. false fire alarms. The second is longer and slower, passsing through the sensory cortex allowing us to consider the risk and to cut off the initial fear response if the danger is not real.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Fear
p.28   Internal response lead to particular courses of action, external emotional expression allows others to learn from our experience.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Emotion
p.30   Internal feelings and external expressions must be taken into account in a consideration of the evolution of emotions.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Emotion
pp.34-39   The higher cognitive emotions, guilt, love, revenge etc., "seem to exhibit a kind of 'global rationality' that saves pure reason from itself" (p.36).

Robert Frank says that such emotions, which evolved later than the basic emotions, are related to commitment issues. e.g. facial expressions of guilt demonstrate untrustworthiness -- if you can be trusted, others are more happy to work with you. Signs of love demonstrate commitment to another. A reputation for revenge means you will be less likely to be a victim.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Emotion Reason
p.47   Moods (e.g. happiness) are long-term and increase our susceptibility to emotions (e.g. joy). Equally, a mood such as happiness may protect us from distress.

Moods are background states.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Emotion
pp.53-54   Stories provide emotional satisfaction by providing social information. Yet the information is false Perhaps they work by providing information about the narrator -- his/her intelligence.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Emotion
p.80   Remembering is never precise because items in memory are not recorded in their fine details. They are filed under keywords; these are extrcted and "educated guesswork" fills in the blanks. "It is more like reconstrcuting an antique pot from a few broken shards than replaying an old movie" (p.80).   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Imagination Memory Reality/Virtuality/Actuality
pp.116-120   Subjective feeling that is the basis for consciousness is "the essence of true emotion" (p.116) and consciousness is arrived at through embodiment (which leads to subjective feeling). Will robots feel differently to themselves than humans observe their behaviours (and thus inferred) feelings to be? Will they experience the same emotions or the same mix of emotions? If not, could there be empathy between robot and human (p.119)?   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Emotion
p.117   If consciousness depends on the capacity for subjective feelings and subjective feeling depend on the form of body one has, computer programs will always lack consciousness if they remain virtual. Hence 'evolutionary robotics' and 'embodied programs'.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Embodied cognition Reality/Virtuality/Actuality
p.118   Re John Searle's thought experiment, the Chinese Room. A man in a room has a set of rules for responding to Chinese inscriptions that are given to him. Based on these responses, people outside the room believe the man knows the Chinese language. He doesn't though. Searle argues a computer is like this -- it only interprets, it never knows therefore could never become conscious.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Belief knowledge
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