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Stockburger, A. 2003, November 4—6 The game environment from an auditive perspective. Paper presented at Level Up, Utrecht Universiteit. 
Added by: sirfragalot (03/30/2006 03:54:46 PM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (05/15/2008 10:09:26 AM)
Resource type: Proceedings Article
BibTeX citation key: Stockburger2003
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Categories: Narrative, Sound Design, Typologies/Taxonomies
Keywords: Acousmatic sound, Kinaesthetics, Sound objects
Creators: Stockburger
Publisher: DIGRA (Utrecht Universiteit)
Collection: Level Up
Resources citing this (Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography)
Views: 7/565
Abstract
The point of departure for this paper is to consider the concept of spatial practice as a possible perspective for the understanding of computer and videogames. Espen Aarseth (2000, p.169) states that “[t]he problem of spatial representation is of key importance to the genre’s aesthetics”. Jesper Juuls (1999, p.46) seems to confirm this position when he says: “computer games are almost exclusively set in a space”. He does however not follow up on this important observation.

Sound is not necessarily the first thing that comes to mind when we think about spatial representation. Nevertheless, it is a significant factor in the emergence of specific immersive environments generated by contemporary 3D computer games.
Added by: sirfragalot  Last edited by: sirfragalot
Notes
One of the few papers I've found that discusses the use of sound objects in computer games using Metal Gear Solid as an example.

The approach is briefly analytical, drawing on film sound and differentiating between that and game sound. It attempts a typology of sound objects. It also points out the paucity of material on the subject.

Typology (in MGS2) is based on sound's use in the game.

The author's PhD thesis: (Stockburger 2006).

Stockburger, A. (2006). The rendered arena: Modalities of space in video and computer games. Unpublished thesis PhD, University of the Arts, London.
Added by: sirfragalot  Last edited by: sirfragalot
Quotes
p.1   In addition to spatial representation, sound serves "to inform and give feedback, to set the mood, rhythm and pace, and to convey the narrative."   Added by: sirfragalot
p.3   "...it is precisely the dynamic relation between material and program that separates sound practice in a computer game from other [audiovisual] media".   Added by: sirfragalot
p.9   "The kinaesthetic control over the acousmatisation and visualisation of sound objects in the game environment is a key factor in creating unique spatial experiences when playing computer games."   Added by: sirfragalot
p.10   When discussing real-time creation of spatial signatures simulating various acoustic spaces, "[T]he simulation process literally turns the relationship between source and surrounding, as observed by Rick Altman on its head. The user follows an inductive process from isolated sound to an assumption about the surrounding space."   Added by: sirfragalot
Paraphrases
p.2   Promotes the terms user environment and game environment. Differentiates between sounds originating from the user's environment (bedroom etc.) or hardware mediating the sound (speakers, headphones etc.) and sounds originating from the game.   Added by: sirfragalot
p.4   Discusses the notion of a 'sound object' and its original meaning as coined by the composer Pierre Schaeffer in 1966. Schaeffer proposed reduced listening to describe listening to the physical and perceptual properties of sound devoid of semantic meaning.

Stockburger makes the point that while such a notion is useful when analyzing game audio, semantic properties of sound are used when the game player constructs relationships between the audio and visual material presented.   Added by: sirfragalot
pp.4-7   The analysis of sound by use in Metal Gear Solid 2 is:

Speech sound objects.
Effect sound objects.
Zone sound objects.
Score sound objects (musical score).
Interface sound objects.   Added by: sirfragalot
pp.8-9   Takes up Christian Metz's point that there is no such thing as off-screen sound as opposed to on-screen sound and that sound has been conceptualized by technicians in terms relating to the visual.   Added by: sirfragalot
p.8   Acousmatic is a Pythagorean term that describes the distance between the point of hearing and the point of origin of sound, specifically to the distance separating disciples from an intoning priest hidden behind a curtain. It later became a part of the electro-acoustic and Musique Concrète tradition in its first sense above. Michel Chion uses it, and transforms its meaning somewhat, to describe particular relationships between sound and vision in film.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Acousmatic sound
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