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Wright, T., Boria, E., & Breidenbach, P. (2002). Creative player actions in FPS online video games. Game Studies, 2(2). Retrieved September 16, 2003, from 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (9/19/04, 11:18 AM)   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (9/4/06, 3:06 PM)
Resource type: Web Article
BibTeX citation key: Wright2002
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Categories: Game Design
Keywords: Culture, Interaction, Sociology, Voiceover comms
Creators: Boria, Breidenbach, Wright
Collection: Game Studies
Views: 15/1082
The global sale of computer and console games now exceeds $10 billion dollars annually, inducing further integration of the entertainment, computer and military industries (Poole 2000). Cassell and Jenkins (1999), Bryce and Rutter (2000, 2001) and Manninen (2001) in the academic world and Herz and Pietsch (1997) and Poole (2000) in the trade-book market have begun to address the implications of this integration by examining the changes in social relationships resulting from the expansion of new 3D gaming technology employed in one genre of games, the multiplayer, first-person "shooter" (FPS) games. Yates and Littleton (1999) have argued for the need to examine the cultural context of player interactions. Our project is an attempt to understand the social character of online FPS games, best represented by the PC mod for the game Half-Life, Counter-Strike. However, this paper will only focus on a particular subcategory of creative player actions practiced by those that engage in this game.

We argue that the playing of FPS multiplayer games by participants can both reproduce and challenge everyday rules of social interaction while also generating interesting and creative innovations in verbal dialogue and non-verbal expressions. When you play a multiplayer FPS video game, like Counter-Strike, you enter a complex social world, a subculture, bringing together all of the problems and possibilities of power relationships dominant in the non-virtual world. Understanding these innovations requires examining player in-game behavior, specifically the types of textual (in-game chats) and nonverbal (logo design, avatar design and movement, map making, etc.) actions. To study these patterns of in-game talk and behavior among Counter-Strike players and the social significance of that talk, we examined and coded the log text files generated from playing 70 hours on 50 different servers, with durations ranging from 30 minutes to 2 1/2 hours. We also noted in-game logos and non-verbal interactions as we played with other online players. We have also collected interviews and gathered participant-observation data. These are incorporated into some of the observations in this article. Within the game console function, log files are easily generated and are most often used by players to check their kill/death ratios and to examine game action. We were interested in the files simply as a text for revealing spontaneous player talk in the game. Anyone can easily access this public talk simply by going into the "console" command of the game.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard

Using Counterstrike, a cultural study of in-game communication (Valve Software 1999).

Valve Software. (1999). Counter-strike. [Computer Game]. Vivendi Universal.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard