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Bench, J. (1971). Anticipatory elicitation of the middle-ear muscle reflex. The Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 85(11), 1161–1165. 
Added by: sirfragalot (05/02/2014 11:55:52 AM)   
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1017/S0022215100074570
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 0022-2151
BibTeX citation key: Bench1971
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Categories: General
Keywords: Audiation, Aural Imagery, Imagination, Neuroscience
Creators: Bench
Collection: The Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Views: 3/258
Abstract
VARIOUS reports (Reid, 1946; Coles and Knight, 1965; Djupesland, 1965; Brasher et al., 1969a, 1969b; and Coles, 1969) have indicated that the middle-ear muscle reflex, measured by the acoustic impedance technique, was anticipated after a sequence of loud auditory stimuli. The method of Brasher et al. (1969a, 1969b) was to monitor the acoustic impedance of the ears of subjects firing blank shots from a pistol at regular intervals. Two types of anticipation were found. With repeated shots, the muscle reflex firstly began to appear in advance of the acoustic stimulus, and secondly was elicited by the click of a misfire, which would normally have been too weak to elicit the reflex. It seemed to the present author that the anticipatory muscle reflex of both types could be caused by (a) a purely temporal conditioning, in which the reflex was due to a regular temporal sequence of firings, and/or (b) some other kind of conditioning, which may or may not have been of a cognitive 'expectancy' type. Coles and Knight (1965), in a study employing the Self Loading Rifle, considered that anticipatory effects resulted mainly from warnings given to their subjects, but their experimental design did not permit them to test this hypothesis exclusively. The following experiment was designed to test the relative importance of the temporal and expectancy hypotheses for the second type of anticipation.
  
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