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Slater, M. (2002). Presence and the sixth sense. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 11(4), 435–439. 
Added by: sirfragalot (11/16/2015 11:47:03 AM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (09/17/2018 05:00:21 PM)
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1162/105474602760204327
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Slater2002
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Immersion, Perceptual hypotheses, Presence, Presence (definition), Self-presence
Creators: Slater
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Resources citing this (Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography)
Views: 3/289
"This paper discusses the notion that presence may be considered as a selection mechanism that organizes the stream of sensory data into an environmental gestalt or perceptual hypothesis about current environment. A particular environmental gestalt results in scan-sensing of the world in a particular pattern reminiscent of saccades and fixations in eye scan paths. The environment hypothesis is continually reverified or else a break in presence occurs. Presence is therefore compared to visual hypothesis selection in the work of Richard Gregory and Lawrence Stark. The implications for measurement are discussed, and it is concluded that physiological measures indicating breaks in presence are worthy of study, and that the study of presence is also the study of what maintains an environmental gestalt."
Provides a mechanism for the deleopment of the sense of presence.
Added by: sirfragalot  Last edited by: sirfragalot
p.438   Based on the notion that perception involves the selection from alternate hypotheses:
  • Moment by moment, a selection mechanism organizes streams of sensory signals into an environmental gestalt. Sensory data relevant to other environmental gestalts are relegated to the background. The participant scan-senses the world according to the present gestalt.
  • We “see” in our mind’s eye. Therefore, it is relatively easy to fool the “eye” into selecting the hypothesis that we are in the place depicted by a VE, notwithstanding the typical paucity of the VE compared to the real world. Hence, reported presence is high on the average.
  • The hypothesis selection is not a once-and-for-all event. We continue to scan-sense the world in which we are present, repeatedly returning to and fixating on perceptually significant items, repeatedly testing the presence hypothesis. An anomaly associated with a perceptually significant item may lead to a break in presence: the reformation of sensory signals into another gestalt, presence in another environment.
  • Anomalies in an environment are not equal in their significance: some will induce a break in presence, and others won’t. For example, in the depiction of a virtual human, an anomaly in overall body shape is likely to be far less significant than the shape and movements around the eyes and mouth.
  Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Perceptual hypotheses Presence Presence (definition)
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