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Lee, K. M. (2004). Presence, explicated. Communication Theory, 14(1), 27–50. 
Added by: sirfragalot (02/23/2017 01:41:25 PM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (07/01/2021 07:58:26 AM)
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2885.2004.tb00302.x
BibTeX citation key: Lee2004
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Immersion, Presence, Self-presence
Creators: Lee
Publisher: Wiley Online Library
Collection: Communication Theory
Resources citing this (Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography)
Views: 8/231
"This article reviews previous literature on presence, with a particular focus on its conceptualization and typologies. It first compares various types of presence-related terms (e.g., telepresence, virtual presence, mediated presence, copresence, and presence) and suggests that of those terms the term presence works best for the systematic study of human interaction with media and simulation technologies. After an extensive explication process, presence is newly defined as “a psychological state in which virtual objects are experienced as actual objects in either sensory or nonsensory ways.” Three types of presence—physical, social, and self presence—are defined based on the general definition of presence and the corresponding domains of human experience. Finally, implications of the current explication to the study of presence are discussed."
p.33   Presence "is desirable, because the special information-processing mechanism enabling subjective perception of the world out of pure sensation has given humans enormous survival advantages in the course of human evolution"   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence

"Authenticity, by definition, is more likely to depend on prior cognition of the valid connection be- tween virtual and actual objects [...] Objects can be artificial at one point and then can become para-authentic at another point. For example, an artificial house (e.g., a cyber model house) becomes para-authentic when an actual house is constructed according to the cyber model’s specifications and users of the cyber model are clearly aware of the existence of the actual house."


  Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Authenticity
p.37    "The term actual simply means that something can potentially be experienced by human sensory systems without using technology. It does not require the existence of something independent of human mentality; instead, it requires only the possibility of experiencing something without using any human-made technology. Therefore, the categorization of objects according to virtual and actual criteria is not concerned with the validity of rationalistic assumption that the subjective mental world exists independent of an objective physical world (the assumption behind cogito ergo sum). Nor does the categorization succumb to solipsism, which denies the existence of any objective reality and maintains only purely subjective reality, because it acknowledges the existence of actual objects independent of subjective reality [...] Real experience is the sensory experience of actual objects. Hallucination is the nonsensory experience of imaginary objects. Virtual experience is the sensory or nonsensory experience of virtual (either para-authentic or artificial) objects. Presence research is about virtual experience and has nothing to do with real experience of hallucination"   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Actuality Immersion Presence Reality/Virtuality/Actuality

Presence is "a psychological state in which virtual (para-authentic or artificial) objects are experienced as actual objects in either sensory or nonsensory ways."

  Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence

"If sensation is the sole basis for the perception of physical objects, the feeling of compelling reality will not be possible unless all human sensory cues are provided. Thanks to the subjective nature of the perception process, however, people can sometimes have the feeling of presence despite the poverty of sensory stimuli in current media. That is, imagination and other information-processing mechanisms simulate the remaining sensory cues and create a compelling sense of reality. That might be the reason people can sometimes feel a strong sense of presence based solely on cognitive stimuli for imagination (e.g., written narratives) without receiving any direct sensory stimuli."

  Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Imagination Sensation
p.40   "a virtual environment reacts to users as if they were there"   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Ecology
pp.44-46   Defines three types of presence:
  • physical presence: "a psychological state in which virtual (para-authentic or artificial) physical objects are experienced as actual physical objects in either sensory or nonsensory way"
  • social presence: "a psychological state in which virtual (para-authentic or artificial) social actors are experienced as actual social actors in either sensory or nonsensory ways"
  • self presence: "a psychological state in which virtual (para-authentic or artificial) self/selves are experienced as the actual self in either sensory or nonsensory ways"
  Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence
p.29   Points out that the term virtual presence (Sheridan 1992) refers to presence caused by the technology of virtual reality in order to differentiate it from the term telepresence (first used in the 1980s (Minsky 1980) and 1990s to refer to the feeling of being physically transported – or being there – to a remote physical [not virtual] location).

Minsky, M. (1980). Telepresence. Omni, 45–51.
Sheridan, T. B. (1992). Musings on telepresence and virtual presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1(1), 120–127.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Telepresence
p.30   Follows others in arguing that, as perception is a mediation of sensation, there is mediation at play in the perception of both nautral (first-order mediated experience) and technological worlds (second-order mediated experiences).   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence
WIKINDX 6.4.12 | Total resources: 1102 | Username: -- | Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography | Style: American Psychological Association (APA)

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