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Slater, M., & Wilbur, S. (1997). A framework for immersive virtual environments (FIVE): Speculations on the role of presence in virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6(6), 603–616. 
Added by: sirfragalot (02/14/2018 11:57:14 AM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (09/11/2018 05:17:14 PM)
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Slater1997
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Immersion, Presence, Presence (definition), Self-presence, Virtual reality
Creators: Slater, Wilbur
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Resources citing this (Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography)
Views: 6/124
"This paper reviews the concepts of immersion and presence in virtual environments (VEs). We propose that the degree of immersion can be objectively assessed as the characteristics of a technology, and has dimensions such as the extent to which a display system can deliver an inclusive, extensive, surrounding, and vivid illusion of virtual environment to a participant. Other dimensions of immersion are concerned with the extent of body matching, and the extent to which there is a self-contained plot in which the participant can act and in which there is an autonomous response. Presence is a state of consciousness that may be concomitant with immersion, and is related to a sense of being in a place. Presence governs aspects of autonomic responses and higher-level behaviors of a participant in a VE. The paper considers single and multiparticipant shared environments, and draws on the experience of Computer Supported Cooperative Working (CSCW) research as a guide to understanding presence in shared environments. The paper finally outlines the aims of the FIVE Working Group, and the 1995 FIVE Conference in London, UK."
Added by: sirfragalot  Last edited by: sirfragalot
   "Immersion can be an objective and quantifiable description of what any particular system does provide. Presence is a state of consciousness, the (psychological) sense of being in the virtual environment."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Virtual reality
   Immersion is a means of describing the technology which should be:
  • Inclusive: the shutting out of physical reality
  • Extensive: the number of sensory modalities provided by the technology
  • Surrounding: not a limited field but panoramic
  • Vivid: resolution and quality of the sensory displays as well as their information content and richness

Additionally, immersion requires:

  • a virtual body that is egocentric (i.e. first-person) rather than exocentric
  • matching between bodily movements and what is generated by the displays
  • a plot, a drama that exists within itself and this includes autonomy of other agents in the VE and interaction allowing the user to effect change in the VE.


  Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Virtual reality
   Presence is a function of immersion that increases as the immersion of the system increases. Nevertheless, the extent and balance between the inclusive, extensive, surrounding, and vivid qualities of the immersive technology depends on the context and the user's perceptual requirements. A VE dealing with an orchestra and its concert hall should have high quality audio whereas the image may be of secondary importance, while users favour different sensory modalities when constructing models of worlds.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Virtual reality
   The authors disagree with Ellis (1996) (who suggests that presence serves no purpose for certain tasks in VEs) because Ellis equates presence with realism. The authors suggest that presence does not necessarily require realism.

Ellis, S. R. (1996). Presence of mind: A reaction to Thomas Sheridan's "further musings on the psychophysics of presence". Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5(2), 247–259.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Virtual reality
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