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Witmer, B. G., & Singer, M. J. (1998). Measuring presence in virtual environments: A presence questionnaire. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7(3), 225–240. 
Added by: sirfragalot (02/22/2018 10:18:24 AM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (09/11/2018 05:16:12 PM)
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1162/105474698565686
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Witmer1998
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Immersion, Presence, Presence (definition)
Creators: Singer, Witmer
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Views: 5/116
"The effectiveness of virtual environments (VEs) has often been linked to the sense of presence reported by users of those VEs. (Presence is defined as the subjective experience of being in one place or environment, even when one is physically situated in another.) We believe that presence is a normal awareness phenomenon that requires directed attention and is based in the interaction between sensory stimulation, environmental factors that encourage involvement and enable immersion, and internal tendencies to become involved. Factors believed to underlie presence were described in the premier issue of Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments.We used these factors and others as the basis for a presence questionnaire (PQ) to measure presence in VEs. In addition we developed an immersive tendencies questionnaire (ITQ) to measure differences in the tendencies of individuals to experience presence. These questionnaires are being used to evaluate relationships among reported presence and other research variables. Combined results from four experiments lead to the following conclusions:
  • the PQ and ITQ are internally consistent measures with high reliability;
  • there is a weak but consistent positive relation between presence and task performance in VEs;
  • individual tendencies as measured by the ITQ predict presence as measured by the PQ; and
  • individuals who report more simulator sickness symptoms in VE report less presence than those who report fewer symptoms."

Added by: sirfragalot  Last edited by: sirfragalot
The authors argue that presence requires involvement and immersion.
Added by: sirfragalot  Last edited by: sirfragalot
p.225   "Presence is defined as the subjective experience of being in one place or environment, even when physically situated in another [whereas immersion is] "the perception of being enveloped"   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence
p.226   "experiencing presence [...] requires the ability to focus on one meaningfully coherent set of stimuli (in the VE) to the exclusion of unrelated stimuli (in the physical location) [...] Though novel aspects of the VE may attract some attention, presence depends less on their novelty than on how well they are connected within the entire VE stimulus set."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Attention Salience
p.227   "Involvement is a psychological state experienced as a consequence of focusing one's energy and attention on a coherent set of stimuli or meaningfully related activities and events."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Involvement
p.227   "Immersion is a psychological state characterized by perceiving oneself to be enveloped by, included in, and interacting with an environment that provides a continuous stream of stimuli and experiences."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence
p.227   "Both involvement and immersion are necessary for experiencing presence."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Involvement
p.229   "Because much of our information typically comes through visual channels, visual influence may strongly influence presence. Information presented via other sensory channels also contributes to the experience of presence, but perhaps to a lesser extent than visual information."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Visual bias
p.226   Presence in a VE does not require completely shifting attention from the physical environment to the VE and humans can experience varying degrees of presence in different environments. The allocation of attentional resources plays a part in the development of presence but is not the whole story.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Salience Attention
pp.228-230   A number of factors increase presence:
  • control factors: degree of control, immediacy of control, anticipation, mode of control, physical environmental modifiability
  • sensory factors: sensory modality, environmental richness, multimodal presentation, consistency of multimodal information, degree of movement perception, active search
  • distraction factors: isolation, selective attention, interface awareness
  • realism factors: scene realism (not necessarily content but consistency and connectedness of sensory stimuli), consistency of information with the objective world, meaningfulness of experience, separation anxiety/disorientation.



  Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence
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