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Freeman, J., Avons, S. E., Meddis, R., Pearson, D. E., & IJsselsteijn, W. (2000). Using behavioral realism to estimate presence: A study of the utility of postural responses to motion stimuli. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 9(2), 149–164. 
Added by: sirfragalot (02/26/2018 06:05:02 AM)   
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1162/105474600566691
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Freeman2000
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Immersion, Presence
Creators: Avons, Freeman, IJsselsteijn, Meddis, Pearson
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Views: 5/106
"We recently reported that direct subjective ratings of the sense of presence are potentially unstable and can be biased by previous judgments of the same stimuli (Freeman et al., 1999). Objective measures of the behavioral realism elicited by a display offer an alternative to subjective ratings. Behavioral measures and presence are linked by the premise that, when observers experience a mediated environment (VE or broadcast) that makes them feel present, they will respond to stimuli within the environment as they would to stimuli in the real world. The experiment presented here measured postural responses to a video sequence filmed from the hood of a car traversing a rally track, using stereoscopic and monoscopic presentation. Results demonstrated a positive effect of stereoscopic presentation on the magnitude of postural responses elicited. Posttest subjective ratings of presence, vection, and involvement were also higher for stereoscopically presented stimuli. The postural and subjective measures were not significantly correlated, indicating that nonproprioceptive postural responses are unlikely to provide accurate estimates of presence. Such postural responses may prove useful for the evaluation of displays for specific applications and in the corroboration of group subjective ratings of presence, but cannot be taken in place of subjective ratings."
p.150   "in the normal waking state, we are continually aware of our place in the surrounding environment. Direct sensory information confirming our location is always available and is continually updated. Thus, under normal circumstances, one's current location is a universal feature of awareness, rather than a quality that varies continuously over time. The subjective evaluation of presence requires graded ratings of a sensation that is typically invariant, and observers' lack of experience of rating presence is one possible explanation of the difficulty in providing stable ratings [...] A second, related issue is that there are no verbal descriptors of degrees of presence, because to date there has been no need to communicate such feelings [...] A third concern is that asking subjects to rate presence involves a conflict between sensation and knowledge. Observers know that they are currently in the test situation, and can remember how they got there [...] this conflict between sensation and knowledge is inherent in the measurement of presence [...] A final issue [...] is that the notion of presence is inextricably bound up with attentional factors. The extent to which an observer feels par of an environment may depend not only on the quality and extent of sensory information, but on the interest evoked by the displayed scene."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence
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