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Slater, M., & Steed, A. (2000). A virtual presence counter. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 9(5), 413–434. 
Added by: sirfragalot (02/26/2018 11:46:45 AM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (09/11/2018 05:17:27 PM)
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1162/105474600566925
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Slater2000
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Immersion, Presence, Presence (definition)
Creators: Slater, Steed
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Views: 2/111
Abstract
"This paper describes a new measure for presence in immersive virtual environments (VEs) that is based on data that can be unobtrusively obtained during the course of a VE experience. At different times during an experience, a participant will occasionally switch between interpreting the totality of sensory inputs as forming the VE or the real world. The number of transitions from virtual to real is counted, and, using some simplifying assumptions, a probabilistic Markov chain model can be constructed to model these transitions. This model can be used to estimate the equilibrium probability of being “present” in the VE. This technique was applied in the context of an experiment to assess the relationship between presence and body movement in an immersive VE. The movement was that required by subjects to reach out and touch successive pieces on a three-dimensional chess board. The experiment included twenty subjects, ten of whom had to reach out to touch the chess pieces (the active group) and ten of whom only had to click a handheld mouse button (the control group). The results revealed a significant positive association in the active group between body movement and presence. The results lend support to interaction paradigms that are based on maximizing the match between sensory data and proprioception."
  
Notes
A means to measure presence by analysing transitions between presence in the VW and presence in the RW due to being subjected to sensory stimuli from both. Uses gestalt figure and ground to exemplify presence transitions between real and virtual worlds.
Added by: sirfragalot  Last edited by: sirfragalot
Quotes
p.417   "The issue of presence becomes interesting only when there are competing environments—that is, the individual is receiving and can be aware of stimuli from multiple environments (including internal ones). Presence then determines which of the environments the individual responds to and acts within at any given moment."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence
pp.417-418   "We can think of presence as a selector among environments to which to respond, which operates dynamically from moment to moment [...] A fundamental proposal of this paper is that the set of stimuli of the present environment forms an overall gestalt, providing a consistent believable world in itself."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Gestalt Attention Salience
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