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Schubert, T., Friedmann, F., & Regenbrecht, H. (2001). The experience of presence: Factor analytic insights. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 10(3), 266–281. 
Added by: sirfragalot (02/28/2018 08:03:04 AM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (07/06/2020 08:57:44 AM)
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1162/105474601300343603
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Schubert2001
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Immersion, Presence, Presence (definition), Self-presence
Creators: Friedmann, Regenbrecht, Schubert
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Views: 6/108
Abstract
"Within an embodied cognition framework, it is argued that presence in a virtual environment (VE) develops from the construction of a spatial-functional mental model of the VE. Two cognitive processes lead to this model: the representation of bodily actions as possible actions in the VE, and the suppression of incompatible sensory input. It is hypothesized that the conscious sense of presence reflects these two components as spatial presence and involvement. This prediction was confirmed in two studies (N = 246 and N = 296) assessing self-reports of presence and immersion experiences. Additionally, judgments of “realness” were observed as a third presence component. A second-order factor analysis showed a distinction between presence, immersion, and interaction factors. Building on these results, a thirteen-item presence scale consisting of three independent components was developed and verified using confirmatory factor analyses across the two studies.
  
Quotes
p.267   Noting Slater and Wilbur's and others' (Slater & Wilbur 1997; Bystrom, Barfield, & Hendrix 1999) equation between immersive properties and sense of immersion: "It would be misleading, however, to assume a one-to-one relationship between immersion and presence. One must take into account the cognitive processes leading from stimuli perception to presence. Cognitive processes mediate the impact of immersion on the development of presence [...] Stimuli from a VE are only the raw material for the mind that constructs a mental picture of a surrounding world"

Bystrom, K.-E., Barfield, W., & Hendrix, C. (1999). A conceptual model of the sense of presence in virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 8(2), 241–244.
Slater, M., & Wilbur, S. (1997). A framework for immersive virtual environments (FIVE): Speculations on the role of presence in virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6(6), 603–616.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Presence (definition)
p.267   "Consider the following possibility: you mentally represented a VE in terms of what you, with your body, can do in it. Is it possible that presence then depends on which actions you consider possible in the VE?"   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Presence (definition)
pp.268-269   "The sense of presence is a conscious experience. We propose that a presence experience (the sense of presence) results from the interpretation of the mental model of the VE, which is the outcome of the cognitive processes. We become consciously present as an effect of interpreting our own mental construct [...] two cognitive processes are involved in the emergence of presence: construction of a mental model and attention allocation. Conscious presence experiences should reflect these two processes: presence should involve awareness of possible action patterns and the awareness of the attention allocation necessary to construct it. Therefore, the sense of presence should involve at least two components: the sense that we are located in and act from within the VE, and the sense that we are concentrating on the VE and ignoring the real environment."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Presence (definition)
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