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Lessiter, J., Freeman, J., Keogh, E., & Davidoff, J. (2001). A cross-media presence questionnaire: The ITC-sense of presence inventory. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 10(3), 282–297. 
Added by: sirfragalot (02/28/2018 08:07:18 AM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (09/11/2018 05:19:29 PM)
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1162/105474601300343612
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Lessiter2001
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Immersion, Presence, Presence (definition)
Creators: Davidoff, Freeman, Keogh, Lessiter
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Views: 3/103
"The presence research community would benefit from a reliable and valid cross-media presence measure that allows results from different laboratories to be compared and a more comprehensive knowledge base to be developed. The ITC-Sense of Presence Inventory (ITC-SOPI) is a new state questionnaire measure whose development has been informed by previous research on the determinants of presence and current self-report measures. It focuses on users' experiences of media, with no reference to objective system parameters. More than 600 people completed the ITC-SOPI following an experience with one of a range of noninteractive and interactive media. Exploratory analysis (principal axis factoring) revealed four factors: Sense of Physical Space, Engagement, Ecological Validity, and Negative Effects. Relations between the factors and the consistency of the factor structure with others reported in the literature are discussed. Preliminary analyses described here demonstrate that the ITC-SOPI is reliable and valid, but more rigorous testing of its psychometric properties and applicability to interactive virtual environments is required. Subject to satisfactory confirmatory analyses, the ITC-SOPI will offer researchers using a range of media systems a tool with which to measure four facets of a media experience that are putatively related to presence."
Notable in that it is a rare paper suggesting that presence only occurs in 'mediated environments' and that everyday experience outside these situations is not presence. However, the authors suggest that everyday experience can be used as a benchmark for presence and that increasing fidelity of simulation of the physical world increases presence . . .

Other than that, it is another attempt to provide a means to measure presence subjectively with self-report.

Added by: sirfragalot  Last edited by: sirfragalot

"Draper et al. (1998) define telepresence as “the perception of presence within a physically remote or simulated site,” which suggests, de facto, that presence is a valid construct in relation to experience of the real (physical) world. This is a contentious issue, a full discussion of which is beyond the scope of this paper. However, it is our view that presence is a more useful concept when it is limited to the study of users’ experiences of mediated presentations. Real-world experience can be adequately described in terms of more traditional psychological constructs: such as attention, involvement, and arousal, to name but a few. There seems little to gain from describing people’s everyday experience in terms of presence [...] At the very least, though, real-world experience is useful to presence research insofar as it serves as a benchmark, or standard, against which to subjectively judge levels of presence in mediated environments."

Draper, J. V., Kaber, D. B., & Usher, J. M. (1998). Telepresence. Human Factors, 40, 354 –375.

  Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Reality/Virtuality/Actuality
p.284   Summarizing determinants of presence:
  • media form: extent of sensory information provided, user's degree of control in positioning sensory systems in the environment, user's ability to modify the environment
  • media content: theme, narrative or story
  • user characteristics: individual characteristics affecting presence.
  Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence
pp.284-285   Make a difference between social presence (Mantovani & Riva 1999) and spatial presence (thus different display configurations required). However, they then come back to defining presence as spatial location only.

Mantovani, G., & Riva, G. (1999). "Real" presence: How different ontologies generate different criteria for presence, telepresence, and virtual presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 8(5), 540–550.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence
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