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Slater, M., & Usoh, M. (1993). Representations systems, perceptual position, and presence in immersive virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2(3), 221–223. 
Added by: sirfragalot (02/28/2018 09:10:08 AM)   
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 0.1162/pres.1993.2.3.221
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Slater1993
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Immersion, Presence
Creators: Slater, Usoh
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Resources citing this (Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography)
Views: 4/117
Abstract
"This paper discusses factors that may contribute to the participant's sense of presence in immersive virtual environments. We distinguish between external factors, that is those wholly determined by the hardware and software technology employed to generate the environment, and subjective factors, that is how sensory inputs to the human participant are processed internally. The therapeutic technique known as neurolinguistic programming (NLP) is used as a basis for measuring such internal factors. NLP uses the idea of representation systems (visual, auditory, and kinesthetic) and perceptual position (egocentric or exocentric) to code subjective experience. The paper also considers one external factor, that is how the virtual environment represents a participant—either as a complete body, or just an arrow cursor that responds to hand movements. A case-control pilot experiment is described, where the controls have self-representation as an arrow cursor, and the experimental group subjects as a simple virtual body. Measurements of subjects' preferred representation systems and perceptual positions are obtained based on counts of types of predicates and references used in essays written after the experiment. These, together with the control variable (possession/absence of a virtual body), are used as explanatory variables in a regression analysis, with reported sense of presence as the dependent variable. Although tentative and exploratory in nature, the data analysis does suggest a relationship between reported sense of presence, preferred representation system, perceptual position, and an interaction effect between these and the virtual body factor.
  
Notes
Makes use of concepts from neurolinguistic programming (NLP) to investigate the experience of presence in a pilot study. NLP deals with representation systems (visual, auditory, kinaesthetic – 'I saw', 'I said', 'I feel') and perceptual position(first position, second position, third position – I, you, passive voice) in order to assess experience. Results were inferred from an NLP analysis of written reports describing the subjects' feelings of presence in the VE.

Note that the VE being used was mainly visual with little audio and no tactility.

Results indicate:

  • Higher visual representation in the report correlated with higher sense of presence. The reverse for auditory (higher proportion of auditory representation, lower sense of presence)
  • For subjects with a virtual body, Higher kinaesthetic representation in the report correlated with higher sense of presence – without a virtual body, higher kinaesthetic representation in the report correlated with lower sense of presence
  • Sense of presence increases with use of first-person perceptual position in the reporting.

Added by: sirfragalot  Last edited by: sirfragalot
Quotes
p.222   The authors define presence as "the (suspension of dis-) belief that they are in a world other than where their real bodies are located [...] IVEs may be considered as general purpose presence-transformaing machines."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence
WIKINDX 6.4.9 | Total resources: 1083 | Username: -- | Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography | Style: American Psychological Association (APA)


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