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Hendrix, C., & Barfield, W. (1996). Presence within virtual environments as a function of visual display parameters. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5(3), 274–289. 
Added by: sirfragalot (02/28/2018 09:44:15 AM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (09/11/2018 05:19:51 PM)
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1162/pres.1996.5.3.274
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Hendrix1996a
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Immersion, Presence, Presence (definition), Self-presence
Creators: Barfield, Hendrix
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Views: 2/92
Abstract
"This paper reports the results of three studies, each of which investigated the sense of presence within virtual environments as a function of visual display parameters. These factors included the presence or absence of head tracking, the presence or absence of stereoscopic cues, and the geometric field of view used to create the visual image projected on the visual display. In each study, subjects navigated a virtual environment and completed a questionnaire designed to ascertain the level of presence experienced by the participant within the virtual world. Specifically, two aspects of presence were evaluated: (1) the sense of “being there” and (2) the fidelity of the interaction between the virtual environment participant and the virtual world. Not surprisingly, the results of the first and second study indicated that the reported level of presence was significantly higher when head tracking and stereoscopic cues were provided. The results from the third study showed that the geometric field of view used to design the visual display highly influenced the reported level of presence, with more presence associated with a 50 and 90° geometric field of view when compared to a narrower 10° geometric field of view. The results also indicated a significant positive correlation between the reported level of presence and the fidelity of the interaction between the virtual environment participant and the virtual world. Finally, it was shown that the survey questions evaluating several aspects of presence produced reliable responses across questions and studies, indicating that the questionnaire is a useful tool when evaluating presence in virtual environments."
  
Paraphrases
pp.274-275   Collating as ego-presence virtual presence and telepresence because they both imply presence within an environment other than the one the user is physically situated in (the former environment computer-generated, the latter a remote physical environment).   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Telepresence
p.276   Discussing means of measuring presence – can be objective or subjective measurements and the former are mainly based around tasks.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence
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