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Welch, R. B., Blackmon, T. T., Liu, A., Mellors, B. A., & Stark, L. W. (1996). The effects of pictorial realism, delay of visual feedback, and observer interactivity on the subjective sense of presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5(3), 263–273. 
Added by: sirfragalot (02/28/2018 09:55:18 AM)   
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1162/pres.1996.5.3.263
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Welch1996
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Immersion, Presence, Self-presence
Creators: Blackmon, Liu, Mellors, Stark, Welch
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Views: 4/98
"Two experiments examined the effects of pictorial realism, observer interactivity, and delay of visual feedback on the sense of “presence.” Subjects were presented pairs of virtual environments (a simulated driving task) that differed In one or more ways from each other. After subjects had completed the second member of each pair they reported which of the two had produced the greater amount of presence and indicated the size of this difference by means of a 1-100 scale. As predicted, realism and interactivity increased presence while delay of visual feedback diminished it. According to subjects' verbal responses to a postexperiment Interview, pictorial realism was the least influential of the three variables examined. Further, although some subjects reported an increase in the sense of presence over the course of the experiment, most said that it had remained unchanged or become weaker."
p.264   "Heeter (1992) has argued for three different kinds of presence: environmental, social, and individual. We believe, howeverm that it is more parsinomnious to view presence as a singel (albeit multidimensional) entity that is influenced by many different variables, all of which can be neatly categorized by Heeter's tripartite system."

(Heeter 1992).

Heeter, C. (1992). Being there: The subjective experience of presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1(2), 262–271.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Presence (definition)
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