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Lee, K. M. (2004). Why presence occurs: Evolutionary psychology, media equation, and presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 13(4), 494–505. 
Added by: sirfragalot (03/06/2018 08:32:09 AM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (11/15/2018 11:30:58 AM)
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1162/1054746041944830
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Lee2004a
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Immersion, Presence, Reality/Virtuality/Actuality, Self-presence
Creators: Lee
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Views: 6/115
"Despite the intense interest in the phenomena of presence, there have been limited attempts to explain the fundamental reason why human beings can feel presence when they use media and/or simulation technologies. This is mainly because previous studies on presence have focused on “what” questions—what are the causes and effects of presence?—rather than the “why” question. The current paper tries to solve this problem by providing an elaborated—and probably controversial—account of the fundamental presence-enabling mechanism. More specifically, it explains the modularity of human minds, and proposes that human beings can feel presence due to the automatic application of two types of causal reasoning modules—folk-physics modules for knowing about physical causation, and folk-psychology modules for knowing about social causation—when they respond to mediated and/or simulated objects. Finally, it explains the media-equation phenomena (in which media or computer users feel physical or social presence) according to the modularity argument."
p.497   Asks "why humans usually do not notice the virtuality of incoming stimuli and feel presence with little mental effort."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Reality/Virtuality/Actuality
p.498   "Humans are psychologically compelled to believe in relatively stable cause-effect structures in the world, even though they are not a perfect reflection of reality."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Reality/Virtuality/Actuality
p.497   Discusses humans' natural tendency to accept incoming stimuli as sourced from reality first and only then to reject after assessment – a suggestion as to why users accept technologically mediated stimuli as real (thus presence).   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Veridicality
p.498   A lack of knowledge of cause-effect structures poses a survival threat.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Reality/Virtuality/Actuality
p.499   Noting that, despite knowing that virtual objects and effects are not real, "people keep using their old brains" and so their first reaction is to treat virtuality as real.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Reality/Virtuality/Actuality
p.500   Discussing the reason why high fidelity of image is not necessary to presence – much of what we see is actually from peripheral vision and thus out of focus.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Reality/Virtuality/Actuality Veridicality
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