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Ravaja, N., Saari, T., Turpeinen, M., & Laarni, J. (2006). Spatial presence and emotions during video game playing: Does it matter with whom you play? Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 15(4), 381–392. 
Added by: sirfragalot (03/09/2018 09:56:09 AM)   
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1162/pres.15.4.381
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Ravaja2006
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Emotion, Immersion, Presence
Creators: Laarni, Ravaja, Saari, Turpeinen
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Views: 2/71
"The authors examined whether the nature of the opponent (computer, friend, or stranger) influences spatial presence, emotional responses, and threat and challenge appraisals when playing video games. In a within-subjects design, participants played two different video games against a computer, a friend, and a stranger. In addition to self-report ratings, cardiac interbeat intervals (IBIs) and facial electromyography (EMG) were measured to index physiological arousal and emotional valence. When compared to playing against a computer, playing against another human elicited higher spatial presence, engagement, anticipated threat, post-game challenge appraisals, and physiological arousal, as well as more positively valenced emotional responses. In addition, playing against a friend elicited greater spatial presence, engagement, and self-reported and physiological arousal, as well as more positively valenced facial EMG responses, compared to playing against a stranger. The nature of the opponent influences spatial presence when playing video games, possibly through the mediating influence on arousal and attentional processes."
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