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Schafer, D. M., Carbonara, C. P., & Popova, L. (2011). Spatial presence and perceived reality as predictors of motion-based video game enjoyment. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 20(6), 591–619. 
Added by: sirfragalot (03/09/2018 01:04:32 PM)   
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1162/PRES_a_00084
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Schafer2011
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Immersion, Presence, Self-presence
Creators: Carbonara, Popova, Schafer
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Views: 2/87
"This study investigated the impact of new motion-based video game control systems on spatial presence, perceived reality, and enjoyment of video games. In two experiments, university students played video games on either new motion-based (Sony's Move, Microsoft's Kinect, and Nintendo's Wii), or standard video game systems (PS3 and XBOX 360 with gamepads). The results indicate that, in the context of golf, racing, and boxing games, the higher technological interactivity of motion-based systems (particularly Kinect) increases feelings of spatial presence, perceived reality, and enjoyment. Perceived reality predicted spatial presence; and spatial presence, in turn, was a significant predictor of enjoyment. Moving toward a more natural user interface (NUI) between the player and the game world can create a more immersive, realistic, and fun experience for the player. A new model for enjoyment of motion-based video games is proposed."
p.592   Presence is defined in visual/spatial terms only: "Presence is the perception of virtual objects and environments "as actual objects in either sensory or nonsensory ways" (Lee, 2004, p.44). Presence is a multidimensional construct, and spatial presence is one of its dimensions. Spatial presence refers to the sense of being there, actually being present in the virtual environment."

(Lee 2004)

Lee, K. M. (2004). Presence, explicated. Communication Theory, 14(1), 27–50.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Presence (definition)
p.614   Interactivity is the starting point in the chain of variable relationships "which then proceeds to influence perceived reality and presence. Perceived reality then also predicts presence, which in turn leads to enjoyment."


  Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Realism Reality/Virtuality/Actuality
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